Data Desk, Research Papers July 28, 2014

Visualizing Commute Patterns in Metro Vancouver


Using the 2011 National Household Survey, this blog entry looks at the flows of workers (with fixed workplaces) between the 5 largest municipalities of Metro Vancouver and their commutes between their places of residence to places of work by census subdivision (commonly equivalent to local municipality). While it would have been ideal to show these flows amongst all 21 municipalities, one treaty First Nation and one Electoral Area of Metro Vancouver, we chose to focus the commute flows of the five largest municipalities of the region by population – Vancouver, Surrey, Richmond, Coquitlam, and Surrey for the sake of graphical legibility. For a fuller breakdown of Metro Vancouver, please see Chad Skelton’s article on Metro Vancouver commute patterns in the Vancouver Sun and, for the original data, used in both analyses, click this link for the Statistics Canada Commuting Flow data page.

To graphically illustrate where workers who living in Vancouver, Surrey, Richmond, Coquitlam, and Surrey are commuting, BTAworks is using a chord diagram generated by Circos, a visualization software package developed by Martin Krzywinski at the Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre at the BC Cancer Agency and used to visualize genomic data and molecular biology, the above diagram was generated by mashing up Circos with Place of work data from Statistics Canada.

With these limitations in mind, a pattern immediately worth noting is how most workers commute within their municipality of residents.  Far from a “Central City-Suburb” model of workers living in the suburbs and commuting in Downtown Vancouver, the majority or, in certain cases, pluralities of workers live and work in their municipality of residents . For example, 68 percent of residents in Vancouver work in Vancouver, 46 percent of workers who live Surrey work in Surrey, 36 percent of Burnaby residents work in Burnaby, 55 percent of residents in Richmond work in Richmond, and 24 percent of Coquitlam residents work in Coquitlam.  For a full explanation on how to read the chart, please click here. Metro Vancouver is increasingly a region of interdependent as opposed to a dominant central city fed by largely residential suburbs and perhaps a positive indicator of regional growth strategies that over the last 30 years have focused on creating a distributed network of town centres spread throughout the region.  More analysis on this chart coming soon.

A special addendum from Andy Coupland, City of Vancouver data guru, from the perspective of 1971:

83 percent of residents in Vancouver work in Vancouver, 61 percent of workers who live in Surrey+White Rock work in Surrey+White Rock, 33 percent of Burnaby residents work in Burnaby, 44 percent of residents in Richmond work in Richmond, and 23 percent of Coquitlam residents work in Coquitlam.

Data Desk, Media, Observations July 14, 2014

BTAworks in the Economist


A screenshot of the Economist article.

A slightly delayed post, but some BTAworks research was featured in this June 2014 posting in the Economist.

Media, Observations May 19, 2014

Odds and Ends: BTAworks in the New Yorker


Image Credit: New Yorker Magazine

A special thanks to James Surowiecki from the New Yorker Magazine for the intercontinental chat.  Here’s the  resulting article on “How Real Estate goes Global” featuring BTAworks’ research on occupancy and ownership patterns in Vancouver’s downtown condominiums.

For those new to the BTAworks body of work on the subject matter, here is a list on some our work in the area:

Suggested Readings on Foreign Investment in Vancouver Real Estate

BTAworks Foreign Investment in Vancouver Real Estate Slide Presentation at SFU Woodwards

with some lessons learn after the presentation:

Media and Metrics: Accounts of the Foreign Investment in Vancouver’s Real Estate Panel

Measuring the Presence of Absence: Clarifications and Corrections in the Reportage of the BTAworks’ Foreign Investment in Vancouver Real Estate

And our original 2008 study on the ownership and occupancy patterns in Downtown Vancouver condominiums.

Media, Observations, Public Programming April 7, 2014

Vancouver 101: Essential Readings for Architecture, Planning, and Design in Metro Vancouver


A scene from one of our favourite libraries in Metro Vancouver.

With the help of the learned Twitter Followers of the Bing Thom Architects feed, here is a list of essential readings to understanding architecture, planning, design and city building in Vancouver and its region.  From academic writers and thinkers, journalists, and community members in electronic and paper medians, this list tries to cover the rich spectrum of forces that have help shape the Metro Vancouver region in our triumphs and tragedies.

This list probably has some major gaps, but it is a try. We have focused on books that are still in print or somewhat still accessible through local booksellers — while most can be acquired new, previously loved versions may be available through Macleod’s Books, a Vancouver institution and is regarded (for good reason) by many Vancouverites as “the Last Great Bookshop“.

A side note for those interested in the readings on foreign investment in Vancouver real estate, BTAworks did compose this list in March 2013 as part of a SFU lecture on the subject.

For access to the Harland Bartholomew documents, arguably the documents that started the contemporary planning era in 20th Century for the City of Vancouver and the region, please click here.

While we’ve provided links to the books via Canada’s largest online booksellers, please consider, if you are in Vancouver, picking up your copies at a local Vancouver bookstore —  here’s the BTAworks’ study on local bookstores in the City of Vancouver for your convenience.  Some much loved independent bookstores around the BTAworks’ shop include Blackberry BooksBlackbond Books, the Book Warehouse, Spartacus Books, and the People’s Co-op Bookstore.

If we inadvertently missed a favourite contemporary book about architecture, planning and design in Metro Vancouver, please feel free to send us an email and we’ll add it to the list.


Planning, Architecture, and Design

Berelowitz, Lance.  2005.  Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination.  Douglas & McIntyre.

Cameron, Ken and Harcourt, Mike.  2007.  City Making in Paradise: Nine Decisions that Saved Vancouver. Douglas & McIntyre.

Campbell, Larry, Culbert, Lori, and Boyd, Neil.  2009.  A Thousand Dreams: Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside and the Fight for its Future.  Greystone Books Ltd.

Coupland, Douglas.  2009.  City of Glass: Douglas Coupland’s Vancouver.  D&M Publishers’ Inc.

Delany, Paul.  1994.  Vancouver: Representing the Postmodern City.  Arsenal Pulp Press.

Design Centre for Sustainability.  2007.  Greater Vancouver GreenGuide: Seeding Sustainability.  New Society Publishers.

Enright, Robert.  2010.  Body Heat: The Story of the Woodward’s Redevelopment. Blueimprint.

Gutstein, Donald.  1975.  Vancouver Ltd.  James Lorimer & Company Ltd.

Hayes, Derek. 2005.  Historic Atlas of Vancouver.  Douglas & McIntyre.

Hern, Matt.  2010.  Common Ground in a Liquid City: Essays in Defense of an Urban Future.  Ak Press

Herzog, Fred.  2011.  Fred Herzog: Photographs. D&M Publishers Inc.

Hutton, Thomas.  2010.  The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration, and Dislocation in the 21st Century Metropolis. Routledge.

Itter, Carole and Marlatt, Daphne.  2011.  Opening Doors: In Vancouver’s East End: Strathcona.  Harbour Publishing.

Kluckner, Michael.  2006.  Vancouver Remembered.  Whitecap Books.

Kluckner, Michael. 2012. Vanishing Vancouver: The Last 25 Years.  Whitecap Books.

Kalman, Harold. 2012.  Exploring Vancouver: The Architectural Guide.  D&M Publishers Inc.

Kheraj, Sean. 2013.  Inventing Stanley Park: An Environmental History.  UBC Press.

Ley, David. 2010. Millionaire Migrants: Trans-Pacific Lifelines. Wiley.

Luxton, Donald.  Building the West: The Early Architects of British Columbia.  Talon Books.

MacDonald, Bruce.  1992.  Vancouver: Visual History.  Talon Books.

MacDonald, Christopher. 2010.  A Guidebook to Contemporary Architecture in Vancouver.  D&M Publishers Inc.

Mate, Gabor.  2009.  In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction.  Knopf Canada.

Metro Vancouver. 2011. Regional Growth Strategy: Vancouver 2040. Weblink.

Perez-Gomez, Alberto, Grabowski, Christopher, and Green, Jim.  2007.  Towards an Ethical Architecture: Issues within the Work of Gregory Henriquez. Simply Read Books.

Punter, John.  2004. The Vancouver Achievement. UBC Press.

Russwurm, Lani.  2013. Vancouver was Awesome. Arsenal Pulp Press.

Stouck, David.  2013.  Arthur Erickson: An Architect’s Life.  D&M Publishers Inc.

Soules, Matthew. 2013. The Livable Suburbanized City: Post Politics and a Vancouver Near You. Harvard Design Magazine (Weblink).

Walsh, Robert M. 2013.  The Origins of Vancouverism: A Historical Inquiry into the Architecture and Urban form of Vancouver, British Columbia.  University of Michigan Doctorate Dissertation (Weblink).

Winson Liscombe, Rhordri.  1997.  The New Spirit: Modern Architecture in Vancouver, 1938-1963.  The MIT Press.

Of course, in the spirit of pure transparency and disclosure, we think this book on another local architect is pretty cool too.


Social Histories of Metro Vancouver

Barman, Jean.  2007.  Stanley Park’s Secret: The Forgotten Families of Whoi Whoi, Kanaka Ranch, and Brockton Point.  Harbour Publishing.

Bown, Stephen.  2008.  Madness, Betrayal and the Lash: The Epic Voyage of Captain George Vancouver.  D&M Publishers Inc.

Barnholden, Michael.  2005.  Reading the Riot Act: A Brief History of Riots in Vancouver.  Anvil Press.

Cameron, Stevie.  2011.  On The Farm: Robert William Pickton and the Tragic Story of Vancouver’s Missing Women.  Knopf Canada.

Chong, Denise.  2006.  The Concubine’s Children: Portrait of a Family Divided.  Penguin Group Canada

City of Vancouver.  2014.  First Peoples: A Guide for Newcomers.  City of Vancouver. Web publication.

Davis, Chuck.  2011. The Chuck Davis History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Harbour Publishing.

Demers, Charles.  2009.  Vancouver Special.  Arsenal Pulp Press.

Gilmour, Julie.  2014.  Trouble on Main Street: Mackenzie King, Reason, Race and the 1907 Vancouver Riots.  Allen Lane Canada.

Kazimi, Ali.  (2011). Undesirables: White Canada and the Komagata Maru. D&M Publishers Inc.

Purvey, Diane and Belshaw, John.  2011. Vancouver Noir: 1930-1960. Anvil Press.

Vogel, Aynsley and Wyse, Dana.  2009. Vancouver: A History in Photographs. Heritage House Publishing.

Weyler, Rex.  2005.  Greenpeace: The Inside Story: How a Group of Ecologists, Journalists, and Visionaries Changed the World. Raincoast Books.

Yee, Paul.  Saltwater City: Story of Vancouver’s Chinese Community.  D&M Publishers Inc.


Data Desk, Observations, Research Papers March 25, 2014

All Hands on Deck: Building a Resilience Constituency – A BTAworks+MASNYC Essay

New York New Flood Levels_slidecover

Please click the image to start the slidedeck

BTAworks recently had the opportunity to collaborate with Mary Rowe, the Director of Urban Resilience and Livability of the Municipal Arts Society of New York City. In the MAS publication’s Ideas for New York’s New Leadership, it presents a set of essays that talks about a key issue, opportunity, or priority for action within a specific domain to the new mayor of New York City to stimulate a diverse and inclusive discourse to inform decision making and priority setting.  Working with Mary Rowe, BTAworks looked at the challenge of nurturing a resilience constituency within a vastly complex and diversity metropolis.  How do we create an urban system that can sustain itself and quickly rebound from shock and stresses? In the spirit of BTAworks’ early work on a toolkit on Climate Change and the City of Vancouver, this is a question that is affected cities around the world in terms of sudden and gradual shocks and stresses.

In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, it highlighted the urgency for New York City to engage this question. Using data from NYC OpenData and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, BTAworks was able to map and model the effects of another possible 1 percent flood event upon New York City. Not surprising, flooding would be very uneven through a City like New York as it reflect the local topography and development history of each borough of New York City. Moreover, using land use and property value spatial datasets available on NYC OpenData, we were able to model the possible impacts of another 1 percent flood in terms of land mass, demography, land mass, and property values. The above slidedeck are maps and tables that did not make it to publication, but we thought might prove to be helpful documents to facilitate an informed dialogue.

Some key findings of this slidesdeck include:

  • Modern Manhattan is profoundly different from the original 1609 shoreline that Henry Hudson had first encounter and has been profoundly shaped and reshaped by human activity. An insight talk about these changes can be found in this TED Talk by Eric Sanderson.
  • Based up the New FEMA Base Flood Elevations, 16 percent (47 Square Miles) of New York City is susceptible to being heavily affected by 100 year (Hurricane Sandy level) flood.  In total, this area is equivalent to 36 Central Parks or the entire land mass of the City of San Francisco.
  • By boroughs, New York will be unevenly distributed by flooding risk as Queen’s at 36% of its land area would be the most heavily affected compared to 8% of Manhattan who which would be the least.
  • By square footage, one and two family houses are the heavily affected land use type in New York City.
  • About 9 percent (325,000 units) of the City’s housing stock is under the 1% Flood Elevation.
  • While the full assessed value of New York City is about $1 trillion, the assessed value of properties under a 1% flood elevation is $111 billion.
  • In 2012, about 1.3 million people live in an 1% Flood Zone.  23% of the total population living under the Flood Elevation is Hispanic compared to 18% of the total NYC patterns
  •  In 1983, 33 square miles of New York City is in a 100 year floodplain.  By 2050 and projected effect of climate change, 72 square miles of New York City will be in a 100 year flood plain.

New York New Flood Level Map

Data Desk, Observations, Research Papers January 29, 2014

Changes in Total Property Assessment Values in the City of Vancouver by Percentage, 2013-2014


With the publication of the 2014 BC Assessment property value dataset on the City of Vancouver’s Open Data Catalogue, BTAworks wanted to extend its annual $1 million line Single Family properties analysis to the entire City of Vancouver and all property types. After overcoming a key technical challenge, see note below.  We wanted to explore how the values of Vancouver real estate changes over a single year as each dot on the map represents one single property.  What’s interesting about these value changes may not necessarily be what happens to a single dot, but rather a cluster of dots or distinct area of dots in particular neighbourhoods as they reflect changes in public policy, real estate market sentiment, or simply demand for properties in a particular land use type.


Citywide, the total property value of the City of Vancouver was $283 billion in 2014 which represents an increase of 2.3 percent ($6.4 billion) from 2013.  When broken down by land use types, total value changes ranged vastly from an increase of 10 percent for light industrial use to a decrease of 17 percent for limited agricultural uses. Light industrial zones saw the highest percentage increases in total values at 10 percent followed by Industrial (7 percent), Historic area (6.8 percent), and Commercial uses (5 percent). While likely the effect of high pre-existing total values, values in one family dwelling areas only increased by 1.4 percent. Please see the accompanying table, but note that data points such as transportation right of ways may not be assigned a land use category and are listed as “Data Unavailable”. Nevertheless, as BTAworks expands this analysis to a longer time series, it will be interesting to see if these value patterns of increases and declines hold for various land use types over time.

In terms of specific portions of the City of Vancouver, properties that saw increases of total values by over 25 percent were clustered on the West End, Downtown Eastside, and Mount Pleasant area.  Properties in the inner city light industrial and industrial areas and port areas saw 25 percent or more increases in total values.   Strips of properties along Kingsway, Main Street, areas around Granville and Arbutus Street also saw major increases in property values. Interestingly, most properties in Vancouver’s Single Family Home districts saw relatively flat patterns and, in certain cases, declines.  It would be interesting to explore the causes of these patterns, but it is important to note that, give the rapid ascent of the Single Family properties values in the City of Vancouver, value shifts up or down could reflect the inertia of already high property values.

While this analysis will not examine the particular reasons why specific areas saw value increases or decreases, these light industrial areas are of particular concern as they are often cited as the nursery for new firms and economic/employment activities on a regional and citywide level, but, at the same time, offer parcel assemblages that are attractive for new multi-family residential development in terms of size and relative ease of acquisition to other land use types and land divisions. While there are ongoing initiatives to preserve and retain employment lands within the City of Vancouver and Metro Vancouver region, it remains unclear if these large value shifts in light industrial land uses in such a short time will have an upward pressure for existing tenants on the lands and their rents or arrest or even prevent the emergence of the next economic dynamo for the Region. With increased industrial land values, there is an opportunity to intensify industrial uses on these lands, but also the danger to displace major current and future economic and employment drivers and prospects for the City and Region.

Technical Notes:

It has been an ongoing BTAworks project over the years of the $1 million line Single Family property mapping to document the total values and value changes for all properties in the City of Vancouver. However, the challenge has always been to how to best illustrate and account for strata properties such as condominiums.  Single family homes are relatively simple to represent as they have a one to one relationship to a dot; however, when it comes to strata properties, one dot can represent dozens if not hundreds of records — a One-to-Many relationship.

Without accounting for this Many-to-One relationship, a direct matching of BC Assessment records to City of Vancouver GIS files could inadvertently only document the “common areas” of the near4,300 strata properties/108,000 units as oppose to the actual  price dynamics with each strata property.  While most stratas are residential in nature, it is important to note that commercial and retail stratas also exist. After several years of periodic concentration, this analysis pre-processes the 2014 BC assessment database to create a single data point for each strata parcel.  Prices changes for these strata data points is an average of all total value changes of records for a particular strata property. This is a pragmatic mapping solution to address this many-to-one data record dilemma, but is much more precise than a possible inadvertent map of the values changes for strata condo areas.

Please note that like our previous $1 million single family home analysis, we have focused on total value that is the value of both the land and “improvement” (typically a building) on it.  Moreover, due to long standing BC Assessment Authority methodologies, values in this analysis reflect the “market value” of a particular property in July of the previous year.  For example, 2014 values reflect assessments made in July 2013 and 2013 values represent ones from July 2012.

Another important note to acknowledge is that the analysis in this entry is based upon an unedited version of the Property tax report data available on the Vancouver Open Data Catalogue obtained in January 2013.  Revisions of the tabular data may occur as the database is revised to account and/or exclude data artifacts and landuse miscodes in later versions as they are discovered in later versions.


Data Desk, Observations, Research Papers January 25, 2014

The Freezing of Vancouver’s One Million Dollar Line?






Please note that these figures may be revised as the Open Data database that used in this study is refined to excluded properties like schools, parks, and right of ways that may have been invertantly classed as Single Family Homes in the original database. — AY, Sept 2014

Key Findings

Between 2013 to 2014, the number of single family homes in the City of Vancouver assessed at $1 million line or more has effectively remained unchanged.

There were 37,800 SF properties worth over $1 million in 2014 compared to 37,410 SF properties in 2013. When inflation is accounted for, there were 37,910 SF properties assessed at over $1 million.

The total number of Single Family properties in the 2014 edition of the BTAwork’s $1 million line analysis is 68,355.

In 2014, about 55 percent (37,800) of the total number of Single Family properties in the City of Vancouver were worth more than $1 million.

While 1,135 Single Family properties in the City of Vancouver valued at under the $1 million line became valued at more than $1 million between 2013 to 2014, 740 SF properties valued at more than $1 million in 2013 fell below the $1 million line in 2014.

In terms of value category growth, categories of homes under $3 million did not see significant increases in their numbers; however, homes worth between $4 million to $5 million and over $5 million saw sizable growth at 7 and 10 percent respectively.

Study Write-up

The 2014 BTAworks edition of the $1 million in the City of Vancouver’s “One-family Dwelling” or RS districts is the fourth version of our series in exploring the changing patterns of Single Family property values in the City of Vancouver. We have continued to followed the same methodology of our 2013 study which follows the pathways of our 2012 and 2011 studies. Generally speaking, the observations and zoning histories remain steady from these previous studies. However, this 2014 analysis is not direct comparable with previous BTA $1 million line studies and maps as a rezoning of the Norquay Village area has removed about 1,900 Single Family parcels out of the 2014 study and, as a consequence, the area out of the map.

As with previous studies, all data used in these maps was obtained from the City of Vancouver’s Open Data Catalogue.  The property values data used in this study and map series are from BC Assessment whose methodology of assessment can be viewed it and, as a consequence, they do not necessarily reflect current market prices. This study has also rounded raw numbers to the closest 5 or 0.

Media, Public Programming December 16, 2013

2014 UBC School of Regional and Community Planning’s Dialogues on Vancouver’s Future


Just announced and BTA is proud to participate in. Here’s the notice in PDF form: 2014 Dialogues on Our City’s Future Poster

Tuesday Dialogues from 7 pm to 9:30 pm (Doors open 6:30)

Moderated by Dr. Penny Gurstein, UBC Director SCARP

Jan 21

Dr. Tom Hutton, Professor SCARP

“Vancouver as a sustainable city” Is this statement Rhetoric or Reality?

Feb 4

Dr. Larry Frank, Professor SCARP

Environmental and Health Impacts of Community Design: What are the Tools for creating Co-Benefits?

Feb 18

Andy Yan, Planner, Bing Thom Architects and Adjunct Professor SCARP

Explore the 10 data points you should know about your City, from demographics to civic participation, to real estate ownership. What might it take to create our own “Good City of Vancouver”?

March 4

Dr. Maged Senbel, Assistant Professor SCARP

What are the Current Challenges and New Trends in Public Engagement for Neighborhood Planning?

March 18

Dr. Leonie Sandercock, Professor SCARP

The Impossible Contradictions: Urban Indigenous Planning in Canada. How does the increasing presence of urban indigenous peoples impact community and regional planning?


Admission: UWCV Members $5 + tax, Non-Members $10 + tax. Please register by phone (604) 731- 4661 or online at prior to each evening.

The UWCV Federation Committee and HHPF are presenting the 2014 Dialogues in collaboration with UBC School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP).


Data Desk, Public Programming October 25, 2013

BTAworks Metro Vancouver Trick or Treater Count 2013 | #TreatCount2013


Halloween is one of our favourite days of the year at BTAworks and, in our everlasting and ongoing quest for unique community metrics, we will be continuing our crowdmapping exercise of documenting the Trick or Treating hotspots in Metro Vancouver. Another major event that coincides with Halloween is Día de Muertos or the Day of the Dead which is sober, but also celebratory Mexican holiday that encompasses a three day celebration from October 31 to November 1.

An unique Vancouver event is the Public Dreams Society’s Parade of Lost Souls which sadly is in its last year, but will hopefully find new life next year in a new incarnation. The above photo is a street scene of celebrants enjoying a hot beverage at the famous Joe’s Cafe on Commercial Drive after this year’s parade. For those in the know of Vancouver’s Caffeine Culture, two shots of espressos from Joe’s could very well wake the Dead.

Our 2012 Trick or Treater Count was an enormous success with the help of Vancouver’s vibrant social media community and the Vancouver Sun. With 100 data points from across the Metro Vancouver region and, while not exactly scientific nor statistically valid, the final map was an interesting proxy indicator towards social cohesion, fabric and capital of Vancouver in terms of neighborhoods, urban design and socioeconomic status. The neighborhoods of Strathcona and Arbutus Ridge in the City of Vancouver and the Lafarge Lake neighborhood of Coquitlam ended up to be one of the top neighbourhoods for Halloween loot.

This year, we are teaming up with the Vancouver Sun and its intrepid data journalist, Chad Skelton (@chadskelton) to present #TreatCount2013 and submit your counts through three ways:

1) The Vancouver Sun website:

You can directly submit your count on this Vancouver Sun website.

2) Email:

Counters can email us at <THANKS WE’RE DONE FOR THIS YEAR> with their closest street intersection, number of trick or treaters, and candy type. For example, if you live near the corner of Main and 37th Ave with 40 Trick or Treaters and handing out lollipops,  you can email the message: “Main and 37th Ave, 40, lollipops”


3) Tweet Us:

Counters can tweet us with the hashtag #treatcount2013.  With the above example, a Twitter submission would be: “Main and 37th Ave, 40, lollipops, #treatcount2013″

For those interested in observing the social media role out of #treatcount2013, you can either follow the hashtag or access the Project’s Storify page:

The BTAworks data gremlins will process emails and tweets during first week of November and publish their results on this blog and a story in the Vancouver Sun.

We’ll be collecting entries up until 4pm on November 1st.

Have a Happy and Safe Halloween!

Data Desk, Media, Observations September 12, 2013

Should the corner store and coffee house return to residential neighbourhoods?

Andy Yan BTAworks SFU City Conversation Sept 2013 from ayan_bta

Last Thursday, Andy Yan from BTAworks was invited to participate in a SFU City Conversations.  Along with Neal Lamontagne and Boyd Thompson from the Wilder Snail, we looked at the challenges and opportunities for retail/commercial services to enter Vancouver’s residential neighbourhoods.   This is Andy’s slideshow.  In addition to previously published BTAworks’ papers on coffee houses and corner grocery stores, the summary of his presentation was not the question of “Should the corner store and coffee house return to residential neighbourhood, but rather the question of “Can the corner store and coffee house return to residential  neighbourhood?” given current taxation and cost of living regimes in the City of Vancouver.